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100th 5 100 100 5 5 5 times 5 right rceil lceil 5 rceil 5 the last number in the ordered list, which is 50 50 The 100th percentile is defined to be the largest value in the list, which is 50. Equivalently, 80 of the observations are found above the 20th percentile. So the 5th, 30th, 40th, 50th and 100th percentiles of the ordered list using the nearest-rank method are. Consider an ordered population of 10 data values.

What are the 25th, 50th, 75th and 100th percentiles of this list using the nearest-rank method. For example, the 20th percentile is the value or score below which 20 of the observations may be found. 5 3 times 10 right rceil lceil 2. 5 rceil 3 the 3rd number in the ordered list, which is 7 7 7 is an element of the list. Percentile P Number in list N Ordinal rank n Number from the ordered list that has that rank Percentile value Notes 25th 10 25 100 10 2.

0 5 times 10 right rceil lceil 5. 50th 10 50 100 10 5. 0 rceil 5 the 5th number in the ordered list, which is 8 8 8 is an element of the list. 75th 10 75 100 10 7. 5 rceil 8 the 8th number in the ordered list, which is 15 15 15 is an element of the list. 5 8 times 10 right rceil lceil 7. 100th 10 Last 20, which is the last number in the ordered list 20 The 100th percentile is defined to be the largest value in the list, which is 20.

So the 25th, 50th, 75th and 100th percentiles of the ordered list using the nearest-rank method are. Consider an ordered population of 11 data values. Percentile P Number in list N Ordinal rank n Number from the ordered list that has that rank Percentile value Notes 25th 11 25 100 11 2. 75 3 times 11 right rceil lceil 2. 75 rceil 3 the 3rd number in the ordered list, which is 7 7 7 is an element of the list. 50th 11 50 100 11 5. 50 6 times 11 right rceil lceil 5. 50 rceil 6 the 6th number in the ordered list, which is 9 9 9 is an element of the list.

75th 11 75 100 11 8. 25 9 times 11 right rceil lceil 8. 25 rceil 9 the 9th number in the ordered list, which is 15 15 15 is an element of the list. An alternative to rounding used in many applications is to use linear interpolation between adjacent ranks. 100th 11 Last 20, which is the last number in the ordered list 20 The 100th percentile is defined to be the largest value in the list, which is 20. Commonalities between the variants of this method Edit.

Given the order statistics. we seek a linear interpolation function that passes through the points v ii ,i. There are two ways in which the variant approaches differ. There is the additional requirement that the midpoint of the range 1Ncorresponding to the median, occur at p 0. The first is in the linear relationship between the rank xthe percent rank P 100 pand a constant that is a function of the sample size N.

and our revised function now has just one degree of freedom, looking like this. This is simply accomplished by. x f pN N 1 2 C p C. First variant, C 1 2 Edit. All of the following variants have the following in common. Sources Matlab prctile function, 7 8. The inverse relationship is restricted to a narrower region. Worked example of the first variant Edit. Consider the ordered listwhich contains five data values.

What are the 5th, 30th, 40th and 95th percentiles of this list using the Linear Interpolation Between Closest Ranks method. First, we calculate the percent rank for each list value. List value v i Position of that value in the ordered list i Number of values N Calculation of percent rank Percent rank, P i Notes 15 1 5 100 5 1 1 2 10. left 1- right 10. 10 20 2 5 100 5 2 1 2 30. left 2- right 30. 30 35 3 5 100 5 3 1 2 50. left 3- right 50. 50 40 4 5 100 5 4 1 2 70.

left 4- right 70. 70 50 5 5 100 5 5 1 2 90. left 5- right 90. Then we take those percent ranks and calculate the percentile values as follows. Percent rank P Number of values N Is P P 1. Is P_ P P n P_ P_ data-class mwe-math-fallback-image-inline. Is there a percent rank equal to P. What do we use for percentile value. Percentile value v f p Notes 5 5 Yes No No We see that P 5, which is less than the first percent rank p1 10, so use the first list value v1, which is 15 15 15 is a member of the ordered list 30 5 No No Yes We see that P 30 is the same as the second percent rank p2 30, so use the second list value v2, which is 20 20 20 is a member of the ordered list 40 5 No No No We see that P 40 is between percent rank p2 30 and p3 50, so we take k 2, k 1 3, P 40, pk p2 30, vk v2 20, vk 1 v3 35, N 5.

Given those values we can then calculate v as follows v 20 5 40 30 100 35 20 27. 5 is not a member of the ordered list 95 5 No Yes No We see that P 95, which is greater than the last percent rank pN 90, so use the last list value, which is 50 50 50 is a member of the ordered list. So the 5th, 30th, 40th and 95th percentiles of the ordered list using the Linear Interpolation Between Closest Ranks method are. Second variant, C 1 Edit. Source Some software packages, including NumPy 9 and Microsoft Excel 5 up to and including version 2013 by means of the PERCENTILE.

INC function. Noted as an alternative by NIST 10. Worked examples of the second variant Edit. What is the 40th percentile of this iqoption pt login using this variant method. First we calculate the rank of the 40th percentile. Consider the ordered list which CONTAINS four data values. What is the 75th percentile of this list using the Microsoft Excel method. First we calculate the rank of the 75th percentile as follows. 25, which gives us an integral part of 3 and a fractional part of 0.

So, the value of the 75th percentile is. Third variant, C 0 Edit. The primary variant recommended by NIST. 10 Adopted by Microsoft Excel since 2010 by means of PERCENTIL. EXC function.p 01whereas the INC version, the second variant, does not; in fact, any number smaller than 1 N 1 is also excluded and would cause an error. Worked example of the third variant Edit. What is the 40th percentile of this list using the NIST method.

First we calculate the rank of the 40th percentile as follows. So the value of the 40th percentile of the ordered list using this variant method is 26. In addition to the percentile function, there is also a weighted percentilewhere the percentage in the total weight is counted instead of the total number. There is no standard function for a weighted percentile. One method extends the above approach in a natural way. the sum of the weights. Then the formulas above are generalized by taking.

The 50 weighted percentile is known as the weighted median. However, as the EXC suffix indicates, the Excel version excludes both endpoints of the range of pi. The inverse is restricted to a narrower region. Stage 4 Performance Chip Module OBD2 LCD Monitor for Mazda 2008. Stage 4 Performance Chip Module OBD2 LCD Monitor for Subaru 2008. Stage 2 Performance Chip Module OBD2 For Porsche. Stage 3 Performance Chip OBDII Module for Hummer. Stage 2 Performance Chip Module OBD2 For Citroen. Stage 2 Performance Chip Module OBD2 For Eagle.

He was best known for his Bernie Gunther iqoption pt login of 13 historical thrillers and a children s series, Children of the Lamp, under the name P. Philip Kerr was a British author. Philip Kerr. Librarian s note There is more than one author in the Goodreads database with this name. Philip Kerr hasn t written any blog posts yet. Quotes by Philip Kerr. Series by Philip Kerr. topics posts views last activity The Next Best Boo.

Novembers Group Read WINNERS ARE. 94 442 Oct 27, 2009 05 19PM The Life of a Boo. june 2010 - sandi 10 53 Jul 13, 2010 03 28AM Readers and Reading JUNE 2010 Reads 22 68 Jul 16, 2010 06 23AM Challenge 50 Books Riris Got 50 book on 2010 40 95 Jul 24, 2010 08 47PM Pick-a-Shelf Sam s YOU CHOOSE Challenge 63 146 Dec 30, 2010 12 21PM UK Book Club Sam s Big 50 x 2. better make that x3 225 255 Dec 30, 2010 06 18PM.

Heidi s TBR list 2010 5 146 Dec 29, 2009 07 41AM Book Haven Top 10 Trilogies 9 246 Feb 01, 2010 06 51PM Mystery Thriller. You will need AllowOverride Options or AllowOverride All privileges to do so. When using PHP as an Apache module, you can also change the configuration settings using directives in Apache configuration files e. There are several Apache directives that allow you to change the PHP configuration from within the Apache configuration files.

For a listing of which directives are PHP_INI_ALLPHP_INI_PERDIRor PHP_INI_SYSTEMhave a look at the List of php. ini directives appendix. php_value name value. Sets the value of the specified directive. Can be used only with PHP_INI_ALL and PHP_INI_PERDIR type directives. Note Don t use php_value to set boolean values.

To clear a previously set value use none as the value. Used to set a boolean configuration directive. php_flag see below should be used instead. php_admin_value name value. This can not be used in. Any directive type set with php_admin_value can not be overridden by. htaccess or ini_set. php_admin_flag name on off. Any directive type set with php_admin_flag can not be overridden by.

PHP constants do not exist outside of PHP. conf you can not use PHP constants such as E_ALL or E_NOTICE to set the error_reporting directive as they will have no meaning and will evaluate to 0. Use the associated bitmask values instead. These constants can be used in php. Changing PHP configuration via the Windows registry. When running PHP on Windows, the configuration values can be modified on a per-directory basis using the Windows registry.

The configuration values are stored in the registry key HKLM SOFTWARE PHP Per Directory Valuesin the sub-keys corresponding to the path names. For example, configuration values for the directory c inetpub wwwroot would be stored in the key HKLM SOFTWARE PHP Per Directory Values c inetpub wwwroot. Example 1 Apache configuration example. PHP constants in the values are not parsed.

The settings for the directory would be active for any script running from this directory or any subdirectory of it. The values under the key should have the name of the PHP configuration directive and the string value. Other interfaces to PHP. However, only configuration values changeable in PHP_INI_USER can be set this way, PHP_INI_PERDIR values can not, because these configuration values are re-read for each request.

Regardless of how you run PHP, you can change certain values at runtime of your scripts through ini_set. See the documentation on the ini_set page for more information. If you are interested in a complete list of configuration settings on your system with their current values, you can execute the phpinfo function, and review the resulting page. You can also access the values of individual configuration directives at runtime using ini_get or get_cfg_var. User Contributed Notes 13 notes. conf and have them work on a per-directory or per-vitual host basis is just great.

Now there s another aspect which might be worth being aware of. ini directive put into your apache conf file applies to php when it runs as an apache module i. in a web pagebut NOT when it runs as CLI command-line interface. Such feature that might be unwanted by an unhappy few, but I guess most will find it useful. conf file, and it restricts the access of web users and sub-admins of my domain, but it does NOT restrict my own command-line php scripts. Confusingly, however, is the fact that phpinfo will show your changes if you do add those to the regsitry, as if they were taking effect.

On Windows, as the documentation above states, you cannot set max_upload_filesize and post_max_size in the registry, because they are PHP_INI_PERDIR. However, the upload size is not changed, regardless of what phpinfo reports. I believe the reading of registry values and override happen too late in the request processing, ie, after the file has already been uploaded and rejected.

In a perfect world, phpinfo would recognize this and not report the overridden values, which is very confusing. htaccess should be used on any given hosting company s server. The worst outcome is if an install. php routine attempts to set. One of the most serious problems here is that it is hard to determine programmatically which of three or more possible configuration methods php. htaccess directives on a cgi-mode server, in which case the outcome is usually a 500 crash.

Once in that situation the php installation routine cannot be rerun to correct the problem, so you effectively have a hosting lockout situation which can only be corrected by manual intervention. pgl As the documentation says. ini from c php in your text editor. If you installed it elsewhere, find the htdocs folder and type its path.

If you installed Apache in the default location, the path should be C Program Files Apache Software Foundation Apache2. doc_root C Program Files Apache Software Foundation Apache2. These are optional extensions to PHP, disabled by default. We want to enable the MySQL extension so that PHP can communicate with MySQL. To do this, remove the semicolon from the start of the php_mysqli. dll line extension php_mysqli. note - php_mysqli, not php_mysql.

Keep scrolling even further down in the file, and look for a line that starts with ;session. Once again, remove the semicolon to enable this line, and set it to your Windows Temp folder session. save_path C Windows Temp. Browse to the conf subfolder in your Apache installation folder by default, C Program Files Apache Software Foundation Apache2.

conf file located there. In order to make this file visible for selection, you ll need to select All Files. Look for the existing line in this file that begins with DirectoryIndex, shown here DirectoryIndex index. from the file type drop-down menu at the bottom of the Open window. This line tells Apache which filenames to use when it looks for the default page for a given directory.

All you need to do is add the following lines to the very end of the file. All of the remaining options in this long and intimidating configuration file should have been set up correctly by the Apache install program. LoadModule php5_module C PHP php5apache2_2. php to the end of this line DirectoryIndex index. php PHPIniDir C PHP. Make sure the LoadModule and PHPIniDir lines point to your PHP installation directory, and note the use of forward slashes instead of backslashes in the paths.

Save your changes and Restart Apache using the Apache Service Monitor system tray icon. If all is well, Apache will start up again without complaint. PHP Constants will work with php_value; for example. php_value error_reporting 30711 bitmask is the same as php_value error_reporting E_ALL. E_NOTICE string of constants. Running PHP under Apache poses a major problem when it comes to per-directory configuration settings for PHP.

ini is parsed at run-time per PHP script. 0 or greater, you can include per-directory PHP configuration files to override or overwrite the master configuration settings. In Apache virtual hosting, only a master PHP configuration file i. The issue here, however, is having Apache virtual hosts override overwrite master settings; not what IIS can do. Just a little further down in the file, look for the line that begins with remove the semicolon from the start of the extension_ dir, and set it so that it points to the ext subfolder of your PHP folder extension_dir C PHP ext.

So, there are two possible solutions. The first solution is described in this section and uses the Apache configuration settings php_value, php_flag, php_admin_value, and php_admin_flag. In that, each virtual host which you d like to have certain configuration settings changed must have these directives set and that is for each PHP configuration setting. This, to me, is the more viable solution, although it is time-consuming and mentally taxing.

What that does is tell PHP to look in the specified location for that virtual host s configuration settings file i. The only downside to this tactic is that EVERY virtual host s custom php. In other words, every single PHP configuration directive you have set in the master php. The other possible solution is to set the PHPRC environment variable.

ini file must ALSO be set in per-virtual-host configuration settings. ini file must contain all set parameters. The great thing about per-directory configuration settings when they re implemented correctly is that PHP already has the master settings pre-loaded and the per-directory settings which may only ammount to one directive in difference can be loaded per request and, thus, there is less over-head. html This information is meant to help users and administrators. I highly suggest it be read if anyone has any questions on Apache and PHP configurations.

I have included some examples that illustrate the two possible solutions, as well. It seems rather redundant to me and completely defeats the purpose that you have to include all configuration settings OVER AND OVER AGAIN. I did my best to research everything before I wrote the article. 10-FEB-09 I must add a little more information. I ve done some thorough testing on my PC as to the PHPRC environment variable set by the Apache directive SetEnv.

It seems to me that this variable is completely disregarded using that directive. I tried everything and can only come to the conclusion that either A I did something very wrong, or B that it simply doesn t work as expected. The former solution, however, does work magically. Doesn t that suck. So, to expand on my previous post, the only real and viable solution to this problem is to use the php_value, php_flag, php_admin_value and php_admin_flag directives in your virtual hosts configurations.

Once again, it can be very boring. But it does work. Registry Key Handling Through PHP. This is an ready to use code. You just need to copy this code into a PHP file. php Code starts from here. Reading the Registry. Wshshell new COM WScript. Shell ; data Wshshell- regRead HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SOFTWARE 7-Zip path ; echo Data is. function registry_write folder, key, value, type REG_SZ WshShell new COM WScript. registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SOFTWARE.

key; try result WshShell- RegWrite registry, value, type ; echo Entry is Successfully written at. registry; return result ; catch Exception e echo Some Exception in Registry writing. Function to deleting from the Register Entry. function registry_delete folder, key, value, type REG_SZ WshShell new COM Wscript. shell ; registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SOFTWARE.

Function for writing to the registry. key; try result WshShell- RegDelete registry ; echo key. e; return false. folder ; return result ; catch Exception e echo Some Exception with the code. Here 7-ZIP is taken as a example. folder 7-ZIP ; key Key_name ; value Key_Value. conf and php. ini ares picked up, but, out of the box, these are defined only in the compiler settings as defaults. conf without it being specified on the command line via the org. plist file is System Library LaunchDaemons.

is Successfully deleted from HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SOFTWARE. conf does not contain a PHPIniDir, and locates php. ini via libphp5. so in etc - you would need to create one here using one of the php. default templates if you want. conf setting to eg. Configuration File usr local php5 lib php. so you know exactly which php. ini is being used at all times. phpinfo will then advise you that it s using this file. Note that, changing the PHP configuration via the windows registry will set the new values using php_admin_value.

This makes that you cannot override them on runtime. So for example, if you set the include_path on the windows registry and then you call the set_include_path function in your application, it will return false and won t change the include_path. CREATE TABLE TRANSACTION. Problems loading data into IQ. LOAD TABLE transaction. customer_id, merchant_id, txtimestamp datetime yyyy-mm-dd hh nn ss,txamount, txcurr.

Doing some testing with IQ and struggling to load some simple data. host iq demo cat 1. 1945178,2058615,2001-01-08 16 52 53, 8. Now I read you have to have a row delimiter to enable load parallelism which is why I included it. But, it returns an error. host iq iq IQ-16_0 demo dbisql -c uid DBA;pwd sql load3. Could not execute statement.

Missing row delimiter detected during a row delimited insert. I found that if I changed the format to this note the trailing commas. ROW DELIMITED BY n. And then I run a simpler load statement. Ideas much appreciated. Not sure why though. Likely your issue is because you don t have FORMAT BCP specified. Your file does not appear to have a delimiter after the last column.

When you use DELIMITED BY and ROW DELIMITED BY the default is to expect a column delimiter after every column, even the last. Changing to FORMAT BCP then tells IQ that the column delimiter will exist on all columns EXCEPT the last one. Keep in mind, too, that using the DATETIME feature means that that column must ALWAYS be that wide. You cannot have an empty string that represents a NULL. In reality, though, you don t need to specify the DATETIME function as your format is one of the default formats for IQ.

Here is a sample. set temporary option escape_character on. set temporary option quoted_identifier on. set temporary option date_format ymd ; -- forces the date order to be YMD for loading. customer_id, merchant_id, txtimestamp, txamount, txcurr. I ran this on my Linux machine and loaded the data without issue. I forgot to post this before I left and have been having trouble trying to post it.

Looks like you already figured that piece out. Since this is IQ 16, there are some new things to consider. Your -c is a tad too big at 96gb. I would set it to 1g at most. There are some systems were we do set it in the 4-8g range, but let s not go that high. The 3 main parameters that you need to focus on are iqoption pt login, -iqmc, and -iqlm.

Take your total memory on the machine and take 90-95 of that number. I see you have 256g for temp cache and 96g for main cache, plus 96g for catalog cache -c. I would assume. that you have 512gb of total RAM. Assuming 512g total ram, take 90-95 of that. Let s say 460gb. Divide that by 3 to get 154gb. This is known as FORMAT ASCII the default.

Use that number for each of the three caches above. -c 1g -iqmc 154000 -iqtc 154000 -iqlm 154000. If your total RAM on the host is less than 512gb, adjust the above number accordingly. Мне нравится 1 Предоставить общий доступ Alert Moderator. This should give you enough memory to do the loads and have other stuff running.

Then it works just fine. You give this information either in the form of answers to interview questions or as answers on paper or on a computer to specific questions. SYCHOLOGICAL tests aren t magic, so let s get that clear right at the beginning. Ultimately, a test s accuracy depends on how carefully and seriously you answer the questions you re asked. Please note that you won t find legal copies of any of the standard professional tests online because the tests are copyrighted by the test publishers.

P sychological tests fall into several categories. Also, for professional reasons, the security of the tests must be maintained, so all mental health professionals are under ethical obligations enforced by licensing boards to maintain proper test security. Achievement and aptitude tests are usually seen in educational or employment settings, and they attempt to measure either how much you know about a certain topic i.your achieved knowledgesuch as mathematics or spelling, or how much of a capacity you have i.your aptitude to master material in a particular area, such as mechanical relationships.

Intelligence tests attempt to measure your intelligence that is, your basic ability to understand the world around you, assimilate its functioning, and apply this knowledge to enhance the quality of your life. Or, as Alfred Whitehead said about intelligence, it enables the individual to profit by error without being slaughtered by it. 1 Intelligence, therefore, is a measure of a potentialnot a measure of what you ve learned as in an achievement testand so it is supposed to be independent of culture.

The challenge is to design a test that can actually be culture-free; most intelligence tests fail in this area to some extent for one reason or another. The concept of IQ derives from about 1916 when a Stanford University psychologist, Lewis Terman, translated and revised the intelligence scale created by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. Hence the name of the new instrument, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. In this instrument, Terman used the ratio of mental age to chronological age.

This ratio or quotient concept led to the use of the term IQ Intelligence Quotient. For example, a six year old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of 100 the average IQ score ; a six year old child with a mental age of 9 would have an IQ of 150. This mental age-chronological age concept works well for children, but what do you do about adults.

What s the difference between a mental age of 25, say, and a mental age of 45. Needless to say, the problems here are so complicated that today psychologists have generally given up the idea of IQ and speak simply about intelligence. Today, intelligence is measured according to individual deviation from standardized norms, with 100 being the average.your ability to think, speak, reason, etc.

that may result from some sort of brain damage, such as a stroke or a brain injury. Occupational tests attempt to match your interests with the interests of persons in known careers. The logic here is that if the things that interest you in life match up with, say, the things that interest most school teachers, then you might make a good school teacher yourself. Personality tests attempt to measure your basic personality style and are most used in research or forensic settings to help with clinical diagnoses.

Two of the most well-known personality tests are. the Rorschach the inkblot testcomposed of several cards of inkblots you simply give a description of the images and feelings you experience in looking at the blots. the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPIor the revised MMPI-2, composed of several hundred yes or no questions, and. Neuropsychological tests attempt to measure deficits in cognitive functioning i.

Specific clinical tests attempt to measure specific clinical matters, such as your current level of anxiety or depression. Psychological tests are usually administered and interpreted by a psychologist because studies in psychopathology, along with academic courses and supervision in psychological testing, are an integral part of the doctoral degree in clinical psychology. A counselor who has had the appropriate academic courses and supervision may administer occupational tests or achievement and aptitude tests, but most counselors have not received the training to administer personality tests.

Academic courses and supervision in psychological testing are usually not a part of a psychiatrist s medical training, so most psychiatrists can ethically administer only some specific clinical tests that are straight-forward check-lists of symptoms. Of course, ethics is one thing, and the desire to make money is another thing.

Therefore you will often find individuals offering to do all kinds of psychological testing especially on the Internet even when they lack the professional training to administer and interpret such tests. So, as in all things, buyer beware. Sometimes a psychologist who runs a clinic or has a private office will use legally registered assistants in California these persons are called psychological assistants or registered psychologists or student interns to administer and score psychological tests under his or her direct supervision.

As I have seen personally as a result of my own trainingthis supervision can vary from highly concerned and ethical involvement with assistants to nothing more than a rubber stamp signature on the final report. There s no way for the consumer to know how much the psychologist has actually been involved in the whole process. P sychological tests were created for three main reasons, all of which are interconnected.

But as a consumer you have the right to be fully informed about the training and credentials of any assistant with whom you have contact. It s easier to get information from tests than by clinical interview. Most people won t talk about this, but, believe it or not, many psychologists are rather inept at dealing with people, and so it s a great relief to them to be able to administer a test rather than conduct a competent interview.

Think about this if ever you find yourself sitting in front of a steely-eyed psychologist while being given a battery of psychological tests. Thankfully, such psychologists tend to specialize in testing or research, or teaching rather than psychotherapy. The information from tests is more scientifically consistent than the information from a clinical interview.

If a psychologist is simply trying to arrive at a diagnosis to help determine the course of psychotherapy, an interview is just fine. But when decisions have to be made about legal matters, disability issues, and so on, then the standardized information from tests allows one person to be directly compared with others, and it makes things more fair. It s harder to get away with lying on a test than in a clinical interview.

Many tests have multiple alarms that go off when a test taker tries to lie. And some tests, such as the Rorschach the inkblot test don t even give a clue as to what preferred, or healthy, responses might be, so it s pretty much impossible to make yourself look good by fabricating deceptive answers to a test like this. T he overall problem with psychological tests concerns their ability to measure what they are supposed to measure.

The accuracy, or usefulness, of a test is known as its validity. For example, suppose you wanted to develop a test to determine which of several job applicants would work well in a bank. Well, not if the job required other skills, such as manual dexterity or social skills. Would an arithmetic test be a valid test of job success. Construct Validity refers to the ability of a test to measure the psychological construct, such as depression, that it was designed to measure.

One way this can be assessed is through the test s convergent or divergent validitywhich refers to whether a test can give results similar to other tests of the same construct and different from tests of different constructs. Content Validity refers to the ability of a test to sample adequately the broad range of elements that compose a particular construct. Criterion-related Validity refers to the ability of a test to predict someone s performance on something.

For example, before actually using a test to predict whether someone will be successful at a particular job, you would first want to determine iqoption pt login persons already doing well at that job the criterion measure also tend to score high on your proposed test. The ability of a test to give consistent results is known as its reliability. If so, then you know that the test scores are related to the criterion. For example, a mathematics test that asks you to solve problems of progressive difficulty might be very reliable because if you couldn t do calculus yesterday you probably won t be able to do it tomorrow or the next day.

Internal Consistency Reliability refers to how well all the test items relate to each other. But a personality test that asks ambiguous questions which you answer just according to how you feel in the moment may say one thing about you today and another thing about you next month. Test-retest Reliability refers to how well results from one administration of the test relate to results from another administration of the same test at a later time.

Note that without reliability, there can be no validity. A thermometer, for example, may be a valid way to measure temperature, but if the electronic thermometer you are using has bad batteries and it gives erratic that is, unreliable results, then its reading is invalid until the batteries are changed. Note also that no psychological test is ever completely valid or reliable because the human psyche is just too complicated to know anything about it with full confidence.

That s why there can be such uncertainty about a case even after extensive testing. A classic problem with validity arises when someone uses a test for a purpose for which it was not designed. The MMPI, for example, was designed to measure pathological personality traits, yet it or the MMPI-2 is often used as a screening tool for law enforcement, seminary students, firefighters paramedics, airline pilots, medical psychology students, and nuclear power facility workers.

Many persons therefore wonder if this is an appropriate use for the test. For example, common sense can tell us what personality characteristics make good police officers. They should have good self-esteem, yet not overvalue themselves. They should be energetic, yet not be so involved with so many activities as to be ineffective. They should have good impulse control and be able to tolerate insult without becoming irritable.

They shouldn t hold personal grudges but should be fair, and kind, and objective. They should be obedient to authority and yet be able to make good judgments independently. They should have stamina when under threat. But these are complex qualities. How do you measure them. For example, you could ask a person if he is honest, and he would likely say, Yes.

But real honesty is discovered under temptation to be dishonest. If hiding a detail of a case could save your career, what would you do under that kind of pressure. Well, there s no psychological test that can measure any of this. The real test is in the encounter with life itself. So, when trying to select good candidates for police officers, if it s too difficult to select in good traits, then the next best option is to select out obvious negative qualities.

And that s where the MMPI-2 comes in. This psychological instrument measures levels of psychopathology. They assess and evaluate information that you give to the examiner, which is why the formal name of psychological testing is psychological assessment. It can tell if someone is always depressed, has bizarre ways of thinking, is always complaining about health problems, or is socially inhibited or overly aggressive, and so on those sorts of things.

There s a lot more that goes into any career than a freedom from psychopathology. Still, the MMPI-2 can be used as a rough screening device to eliminate some obvious problems. Now, anyone with common sense can tell that someone who is free of obvious negative traits won t necessarily make a good police officer or be good at any specific career, for that matter. However, if the MMPI-2 alone were used for candidate selection, its validity would be stretched way beyond reason, and some serious mistakes would be made.

On the one hand, many candidates without obvious psychopathology but who still don t have all the right stuff would be accepted anyway. On the other hand, candidates with some scale elevations could be eliminated even if they may have been functioning well in life so far; in fact, moderate elevations on some scales can be good things in certain situations. This is why a competent psychologist has to make an interpretation of the overall MMPI-2 profile and consider the profile in light of other historical information, such as previous job performance, academic performance, letters of recommendation, and so on.

And this decision-making process brings up one final issue. False Negatives and False Positives. The sole reason for using psychological tests is to help answer the question, Do we accept this person or not. Moreover, because psychological tests aren t magic, mistakes will be made. Even when a qualified psychologist makes a decision based on all the available evidence, there will still be doubts and shadows of doubts.

Now, according to simple logic, if you try to minimize false negative mistakes, you maximize false positive mistakes, and vice versa. Most employers, therefore, try to make their decisions so that the false negative mistakes are minimized, especially when good employees are hard to find. Thus a false negative mistake occurs when a person truly qualified for a job is rejected ; a false positive mistake occurs when a person not truly qualified for a job is accepted.

But for some individuals, such as law enforcement officers, seminary students, firefighters paramedics, airline pilots, medical psychology students, and nuclear power facility workers, the risks are too great for any false positive mistakes, so false negative mistakes are freely tolerated. In plain English, this means that some applicants to certain jobs who have been rejected as a result of psychological testing may feel that they have been treated unfairly and maybe they have.

Such is the human price of high-security. When you are disqualified from a job application for psychological reasons, it means that there are things about your behavior and attitudes that are of concern to the psychologist evaluating you even though you may not be aware of them. You can enter psychotherapy not because you have any specific disorder but simply to explore your unconscious attitudes. If you really get to some deep issues, then ultimately your MMPI-2 profile will change. Therefore, you do actually have one recourse, but it may not be pleasant or convenient psychotherapy.

And so will your interview behavior. You have to think of this, however, as an investment in a career so as to make the time and expense of psychotherapy seem worthwhile. It will take a while anywhere from six months to a year or two of weekly sessions and it will be expensive, and there are no guarantees so, as I said, it won t be convenient. But it s your only recourse. You may have tried everything so far according to your best ability, but your best ability may not be enough; you need the help and guidance of someone else who can see things about yourself that you, at this time, cannot see.

T he lie detector has a certain mystique about it because it is often used in criminal justice or high security settings. Once you see them, though, then even the psychologist evaluating you will see you differently. Moreover, even though it is not a true psychological assessment instrument, it does utilize some psychological principles.

In fact, these principles are the same as the principles used in biofeedback. The typical lie detector, like a biofeedback instrument, simply measures many different physiological processes such as heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, skin temperature, and skin conductance. Hence its technical name, the polygraph, a word composed of poly- from the Greek poly, many and -graph from the Greek graphoswriting in reference to the instrument s multiple recording channels.

But a lie detector does something different it doesn t tell you a thing about your physiological reactions. The reactions are measured and recorded, all right, but the test administrator sees them, not you. In biofeedback, these various physiological processes are fed back to you as sounds or computer-generated displays that you can use to learn to alter your overall physiological experience in the direction of deep relaxation.

So how does a lie detector detect a lie. Well, the test administrator simply asks you various questions and watches your physiological responses as you answer the questions. Some questions are neutral questions, such as What is your name. and your response in answering these questions should be quite relaxed. Then the administrator throws in the real questions.

Are you really a double agent. things like that. If you can truthfully answer No, then your physiology will likely remain relaxed. But if you lie while saying No, then those little recording needles will jump all over the place simply because all the unconscious conflicts you experience in telling a lie have subtle physiological consequences. So on the one hand it s all quite simple. But on the other hand, it s more an art than a science.

Just how much do those needles have to jump around to indicate that you re lying instead of just nervous. Well, there s no clear-cut answer; the test administrator has to make a subjective judgment based partly on science and partly on experience. That is why lie detector results can be so controversial. Mistakes can be made. When does someone with nerves of steel get away with lying.

The only one who knows for sure is the one taking the test, and scientific psychology has not yet learned how to do mind-reading. When does anxiety, for example, get mistaken for lying. I n its original sense, science from the Latin scireto know simply meant the state or fact of knowing, as compared to intuition or belief. The current technical sense of the word, however, refers to knowledge obtained from systematic observation, study, and experimentation. Now, as I said above, psychological tests aren t magic; most of them have been developed through sound scientific principles.

In fact, anyone who wants to become a psychologist must learn all the scientific principles of test construction ; even if a psychologist has no desire to create a new test, he or she must be competent to evaluate the scientific value of any specific test before using it clinically. Unfortunately, there are many psychological tests in wide use that are accepted as being scientific just because they are called tests.

For example, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Enneagramoften used in educational and corporate personnel settings to assess personality types, are based in pseudoscience and psychobabble and have about as much worth in clinical settings as astrology. Any competent psychologist can use intuition to get as much information as these tests provide.

Then there is the classic Rorschach test that uses inkblots to assess a person s inner psychological experience. Several methods for administering and scoring the Rorschach have been developed, and although some of them are surrounded with a considerable amount of published research, it would be surprising if any two independent psychologists could administer the Rorschach to the same person and achieve identical findings.

Similarly, tests such as the Thematic Apperception Test TATwhich asks a person to tell stories about various pictures of social interactions, and the Draw-A-Person and House-Tree-Personwhich ask a person to draw pictures, give results of questionable validity. In regard to pseudoscience tests, then, their usefulness depends on whether you are seeking subjective impressions or objective information. What is the difference between subjective impressions and objective information.

Well, if someone asks you for a piece of string, you might inquire, How long should it be. What thickness should it be. You might be told, I just want it to tie up this bundle of papers. You would then use your intuition to decide what length and size of string to use. 25 meters long, 1 millimeter in diameter, and of a precise tensile strength, then, if you provided a piece of string that accurately fit those criteria, you would be making an objective judgment.

That would be a subjective judgment. But if you were told that the string should be 1. In the end, then, psychological testing can, in some ways, be both valid and reliable; yet, in other ways, it often does not achieve much more than an impressionistic evaluation of a person. Sometimes all that a psychologist needs is an intuitive impression of a person, and pseudoscience tests can be useful.

But if the science and the pseudoscience are quietly mixed together in one scientific report, then subjective impressions have been deceptively mixed with objective facts, and a grave injustice has been inflicted on the person being evaluated. P sychological test scores can be very useful under the proper circumstances and when the limitations of psychological testing are properly understood, respected, and made plain.

Well, your IQ test score may be 126, as measured by that test, at that time, under those circumstances. Note, however, that the score you get on any psychological test is nothing more than the score you have gotten on that test. But what is your real IQ. Well, no one knows. And that s a fact. So what does an IQ test really measure. Well, again, no one knows. And that s another fact.

Note also that every well-known and widely used psychological test in the US was developed and standardized in English. This might not seem very important, but just consider what happens when someone needs to be tested who doesn t speak English fluently. Some test translations have been made and validated through extensive scientific research. But if the test is translated spontaneously into another language either in print or through a translator all kinds of problems can occur.

English words with multiple meanings cannot be adequately translated. English idioms cannot be expressed in another language without changing the entire sentence structure along with the underlying logic of the sentence and when that happens standardizationand the guarantee of fairness it promises, is lost. So, even though translated versions of tests might be used, and even though you might be given a score that appears to be official and scientific, that score is nothing more than the score you have gotten on that test at that particular time and under those particular circumstances.

This might not seem very significant to some people, and it might even seem like philosophical quibbling. But what if your life depended on that score. I f ever you find yourself being given a psychological test, remember that you have all the rights of a consumer, as well as the right. to know the purpose of the testing. to know the names of, and rationales for, the tests being used.

to know the results of the testing you even have the right to read the psychological report itself. to determine, through your signed release of information, who will have access to the testing information interview information, raw scores, test reports in your chart. Note, however, that in some settings you may be required to waive your rights in regard to psychological testing. It may not be fair, but it s legal. No agency can force you to give up your rights, but, if you don t comply with the demand, its agents can refuse to consider you for what you want from them.

In this case, you will have to choose between your rights and what you want the testing to accomplish for you. H as this web page been helpful. Then please help support this website in gratitude, as a down-payment on the success of your hopes and dreams. Whitehead, Process and Reality. New York Macmillan, 1929p. Psychological Assessment Buros Institute their test reviews are evaluations of the tests, not the actual tests themselves.

TestLink The ETS Test Collection includes an extensive library of 20,000 tests and other measurement devices from the early 1900s to the present. Mental Health from Serendip provides numerous links to resources for information on psychological assessment. The Web Psychological Club has several online psychological tests available for your entertainment. You won t find copies of any of the standard professional tests online, however, for two reasons a because the tests are copyrighted, and b because the security of the tests must be maintained.

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We are required to run SAS Installation Qualification IQ after the first installation, then after any updates to the license done. When we added the Access to PC Files license, we were asked to do IQ again but we got an error. Then we were asked to do clean uninstall and re-install of SAS 9. We did IQ again after the re-installation, but we did not get an error. However, after our renewal of SAS 9. We did the uninstallation and re-installation, but still 1 error remained after IQ.

4 license, we did IQ again but we got 2 errors. The error stated that there are excluded files for which the tool expected to find a difference. No action is required on the part of the user for these files. Is this error acceptable. I was also hoping not to do uninstallation and reinstallation of SAS every time just to satisfy the IQ.

If it does, and you have no other problems with your installation I iqoption pt login that the IQ errors are significant. I m assuming that the licence applies correctly. We have never bothered running IQ after renewing licences. After te renewal it was ok, after adding a new part to the license PC-files it the license IQ failed. 1- have it licensed present by registered it in the file sascore. sas7bcat the setinit. 2- all code must have been deployed. When the IQ failed it was the signal step 2 was not correctly done.

To be able to run some licensed part of SAS you must. That is why they asked to redeploy the instatlations with the new sid assuming it present in the software depot Wiht the sid the setinit can be found. Eyeglasses, contact lenses, surgery. At a glance Refractive Errors. Refractive Errors.

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